Evolution Of Swimming Goggles

Swimming is one of the best recreational and competitive activities known to man. Having to live in a planet which is dominated by water, humans had always drawn to the waters and can’t help but to enjoy it.

When people swim in the open seas or do skin diving or do a couple strokes in a swimming pool, the eyes will always be strained by the waters. Swimmers cannot evade this challenge since in order to know where they are swimming towards, it is necessary for them to open their eyes once in awhile. That is where the gogles come in, it is the ultimate gear for swimmers and water lovers out there. We enjoy the waters and oceans now because of the help of gogles yet little do we know about its history, on how it came to be.

Let us take you back to memory lane as we trace back how gogles were first invented and realized. Through a simple timeline, we will see how a simple swimming gear took all the painstaking evolution to reach its pinnacle design we now use today.

14TH Century

For swimmers, the 14th century is often regarded as the birth of goggles era. The foremost known goggles worn for swimming and pearl diving were invented in Persia. The pair was made from refined tortoise shells. This tortoise inspired protective eyewear became popular for two centuries in the Middle East areas.

16th Century

In the 16th century, the Persian’s inventive protective eyewear were imported to Venice and in the year 1530, the “thing” first got its English name “gogolen” which means “to roll the eyes about”. For that span of time, American Indian and African slaves began to put on goggles when diving and swimming to enhance their comfort underwater.

17th Century

A renowned American pilot Guy Gilpatrick went diving and wore goggles to guard his eyes from saltwater.

18th Century

The use of glass as lenses in goggles was first initiated in this era. Polynesian skin divers used to have bamboo or goggles carved on wood with no lenses yet trap the air when the face is submerged onto the water, forming an air bubble on the eye area that enabled the user to have a lucid view underwater. Following that, when the glass was presented by the European explorers to Polynesia, Polynesians were able to incorporate glasses on their deep wooden framed goggles.

Though the said eyewear pairs were not completely waterproof, they were effortlessly dislodged and they undoubtedly enhanced the divers’ visibility underwater.

1911

By the year 1911, Thomas Burgess, on his 14th attempt, swam across the English Channel with the aid of motorcycle goggles. Burgess found the eyewear helpful yet tiresome at the same time.

The motorcycle type of goggle which Burgess used was not waterproof enough; nonetheless, with his breaststroke swimming technique, the goggle served its purpose of keeping his eyes from salt water waves and flashes.

1916

An American inventor named Charles J. Troppman, registered the very first patent for an underwater swimming eye protector or “goggle”. However, there’s no evidence of fabrication of the said product.

1926

Following the steps of Thomas Burgess, an American swimmer named Gertrude Ederle became the foremost woman to swim across the English Channel and wore an improvised swimming goggle.

Ederle’s sister Margaret put a paraffin seal on her goggle pair to prevent water leakage while being underwater.

At this time, even with the increasing popularity as a helpful gear for swimming, waterproofing gogles was still far from realization.

1930’s – 1940’s

In the 1930’s, skin diving and scuba diving gained its immense popularity thus brought great advances and innovations in underwater goggles and mask design. Nevertheless, the said innovations were considered as inapt for swimming matches.

As part of the research advances in the said era, in 1936, Walter Farell copyrighted a goggle intended for underwater eye protection. Consequently, in 1940, printed design plans for wooden goggles based on the inventive Polynesian goggle were launched by a Popular Science Magazine.

1940’s – 1950’s

In the 1940’s and 1950’s, Florence Chadwick and other open water swimmers devised their own version of goggles using double lens glass and large rubber seals. These reinvented goggles were large in size and has an awkward form, yet these eye wears served as great shields from salt water and augmented visibility underwater.

On the other hand, goggles still weren’t worn by them in swimming pools.

1960’s

The sixties didn’t disappoint us in any way. The time brought us stuff to take pleasure in, music to enjoy and swimming goggles.

Individual swimmers began to create their own pair of goggles using cups and elastics. But in spite of the emerging and overflowing ideas, manufacturers were becoming sentient of a breach in the market.

Advertisements come into sight for plastic swimming goggles in Swimming World Magazine in 1968. These early pairs of assembled swim goggles were sold as equipment for swimmers like training boots. Not to mention the availability in one size, these goggles were prohibited in competition proper, making the consumers’ demand crawled back to the bottom. Definitely in that time, the need was there, it was just the one size fits all product didn’t fully met the requirements.

Subsequently, in 1969, Tony Godfrey started fabricating the transfigured goggle design and named the product “Godfrey Goggle”. After several attempts on different types of plastic, Godfrey settled on polycarbonate material. Light in weight, slender, highly resilient and shatter resistant are the top qualities that made the polycarbonate seal the deal. Just like any other promising products, the Godfrey Goggles didn’t instantly made it on top, however, the idea are purportedly copied by numerous goggles companies up until now.

1970’s

At the1972 Commonwealth Games, Scotland’s David Wilkie becomes the very first competitive swimmer who wore a cap and a swimming goggle, garnering silver award in the 200m breaststroke category.

Since then, goggles became a standard swimming gear wherein incremental goggle features were developed with improvements to hydrodynamics, such as anti-fog, streamlining and UV protection.

In mid 70’s, Malmsten Swedish Goggles are launched to public with the same ideas as what the Godfrey Goggles had.

In the present day and beyond…

Goggles design are quite overwhelming, from the materials used and the science behind every design types. Commencing from tortoise shells, plastics and hard woods to various selection of shapes, tints, styles and uses.

In the past 40 years, goggles’ evolution and dawdling fame is relatively remarkable. From being funny looking diving mask to being a swimmer’s prerequisite. Without doubt, those goggles’ improvements still aren’t sufficient for some. With the surfacing technology that the world has in the present, let’s wait for another modernly goggle transformation. Before then, you can just grab some most popular swimming goggles available in the market today.

9 Amazing Animals You Do Not Want To Mess Around With

The world is full of things living and non-living interacting with one another to create a sustainable ecosystem where every living soul is benefiting from. Through the long course of evolution and natural selection process, plants and animals became so diverse that each species is as fascinating and at the same time interestingly unique from one another.

We humans, as part of the animal kingdom, although considered to be the most influential and major contributor to the recent happenings and changes in the world nowadays, we are actually considered one of the tamest group out there. No matter how bad we are affecting the world, our superior intelligence prevents us to be the savages we were once thought to be.

Now, as for the animals that are considered wild and scary, there are a few species out there that even us humans need to step back and try to stay away from. These animals have  distinct and unique characteristic that approaching them may endanger the life of other animals and that includes us. Although they are considered very dangerous, there are still some of the most beautiful animals the nature has to offer. They also play a vital role in the intricate web of life that neglecting one or abuse may affect the entire ecosystem. These animals, just like the rest of God’s living creations, need humans the most to steward and take care of them to ensure their survival in the years to come.

Australian Box Jellyfish

Most deadly jellyfish species can be usually seen in the Indo-Pacific region and Northern Australia and this include the Australian Box Jellyfish.

The Australian Box Jellyfish is regarded as the most noxious aquatic animal in the whole world. The name was primarily derived from their body shape that literally looks like a box. They have tentacles enclosed with nematocysts – tiny darts loaded with deadly toxin. Australian Box Jellyfish tentacles can grow up to 10 feet long and the body’s diameter can develop up to one foot.

This species may not appear deadly but don’t be deceived, its tentacles are very lethal. Minutes after being stung, Australian Box Jellyfish ill-fated victims may experience paralysis, cardiac arrest and worse, even death.

Australian Box Jellyfish are lithe swimmers. Once the tentacles perforate the skin, one can’t simply escape from it.

Deathstalker Scorpion

The Deathstalker Scorpion, also known as the Palestine Yellow Scorpion, can be found in scrubland habitats and dry desert areas around North Africa, Middle East and places in between which have very hot temperatures. This species can grow up to 77 millimeters (3 inches) long. Deathstalker Scorpion has a yellow color body and a contrasting dark tail.

This nocturnal animal commonly hunts for spiders, insects, centipedes and earthworms. However, the Palestine Yellow Scorpion also exhibits cannibalistic behavior, they tend to eat their own kind when the other food is scarce.

The sting of a Deathstalker Scorpion’s fatal pincers can lead to cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction. Do you have any plans of having one? I highly recommend to think twice before you do it.

Tsetse Fly

 

Tsetse Fly, also known as Tik-tik flies, is a hefty piercing fly that dwells in midcontinent parts of Africa, between the Kalahari and the Sahara Deserts. The size of a Tsetse Fly ranges from 8 to 17 millimeters.

The Tsetse Fly is capable of transmitting Trypanosomiasis to man and animals through blood sucking.  Trypanosomiasis or best known as African Trypanosomiasis is a serious and deadly parasitic disease that needs immediate medical attention.

Saltwater Crocodiles

If you’re frightened of Alligators, then you will have a thousand more reasons to fear their cousin, the ferocious Saltwater Crocodiles.

Saltwater Crocodile is the largest of all existing reptiles. It inhabits the Indo-Pacific region from some seas of Vietnam and India. Male Saltwater Crocodile can reach up to 7 meters (23.0 feet) and weighs from 1,000 to 1,200 kilograms (2,200-2,600 pounds), whereas females can grow up to 3 meters (9.8 feet) long.

The saltwater crocodile is a fearsome and opportunistic manic-carnivorous top predator. It can easily assault a prey with a bite force delivering 3,700 PSI of pressure. Definitely, their bite would not only hurt you, but can actually slaughter you!

Cape Buffalo

The Cape Buffalo, also best-known as African Buffalo or Black Death, is a very vigorous and formidable buffalo species found in sub-Saharan Africa. Its height can range from 130-150 centimeters (51-59 inches) tall and weighs from 425-870 kilograms (935-1,910 pounds). Can you imagine how heavy they are?

They are not aggressive unlike other dangerous animals however, if they’re in jeopardy, they will automatically attack and trample humans or even moving automobiles. You don’t want to clash with these fellas’ horns!

Cone Snail

Cone Snails are native to the reefs and shallow warm waters of Indo-Pacific. They are familiar for their exquisite marbled shells. Cone Snails can grow up to 15 centimeters (6 inches) in length.

Cone Snails seem harmless but they actually possess detrimental toxic venom in their harpoon-like teeth that is strong enough to paralyze a victim, and when a large cone snail attacks, the venom is powerful enough to kill an adult human. They are carnivorous and regarded as one of the apex predators of the sea bottom. Hence, don’t get fooled by its stunning appearance and don’t you ever touch these deceiving gastropods!

Black Mamba

The Black Mamba is a venomous tree-dwelling snake prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. It is considered as the fastest snake in the world and the longest one in Africa. A Black Mamba can grow up to 4.5 meters (14.8 feet).

When in danger, a mamba will open its mouth to show the black-lined oral cavity as a caution gesture. It is known for being extremely aggressive and attacking without aggravation. Oh, that’s one hell of a snake and just by imagining them creeps fear into my system.

Golden Poison Dart Frog

The Golden Poison Dart Frog locally known as Golden Frog is widespread in the damp forests of the Pacific coast of Colombia.  The aposematic color scheme of the said creature is a caution pigmentation to tip off predators of its toxicity unless you’re ignorant about it, then it is the sad opposite.

These vibrantly colored amphibians are considered one of the most poisonous animals on Earth. They are widely recognizable for their four long slender legs with non-webbed toes. Another distinctive physical characteristic of the Golden Poison Dart Frog is the lean teeth-like plate in the upper jaw.

Batrachotoxin, the poison Golden Poison Dart Frog possesses, is so strong that one frog is enough to kill ten grown men. That’s quite bloodcurdling, right?

Atrax Robustus

Atrax Robustus, also known as Australian Funnel-Web Spider, is indigenous to Australia.  They are normally found in suburban rockeries and shrubberies.

According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the Atrax robustus is the most venomous spider in the world. Australian Funnel-Web Spider venom holds a deadly organic compound identified as atracotoxin, an ion channel blockage, which makes the toxin highly fatal for humans. With no doubt, this is one of the best example of the saying, “small but very deadly!”

Smallest Shells

The smallest shells are made by single-celled organisms!
One-celled amoebas called Arcellaceans create shells for themselves by glueing together bits of sand or other debris. Their discarded shells, also known as “tests”, become part of the sediment layer at the bottom of the freshwater lake or stream in which they lived, and they can fossilize.
Arcellacean tests come in a great variety of shapes, and their forms are very sensitive to the exact environment in which the amoebas live.
Scientists studying the sediments can use the form and quantities of tests to determine the conditions in ponds, lakes, or streams during the time when the sediments were laid down. This is helpful not only to understand prehistoric conditions, but also to know how more recent life forms respond to pollution.

Click here to see pictures of arcellacean tests and to learn more about Arcellaceans.

Posted in Cool Facts

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